Tire-derived Crumb Rubber
Common Product
MasterFormat 02 42 19.95 Tire, Rubber Recycling; 32 18 13 Synthetic Grass Surfacing; 32 18 16 Synthetic Resilient Surfacing; 32 18 16.13 Playground Protective Surfacing; 32 18 23 Athletic Surfacing; 32 18 23.29 Synthetic Field Sport Surfacing

This information reflects our best understanding of product composition in 2020.

Ground rubber is a derivative of tire scrap waste. It is also known as “crumb rubber.” It is the rubber component of tires, mechanically separated from other components, such as steel belts and fiber, prior to processing. Ground rubber is derived...

More about Tire-derived Crumb Rubber

Ground rubber is a derivative of tire scrap waste. It is also known as “crumb rubber.” It is the rubber component of tires, mechanically separated from other components, such as steel belts and fiber, prior to processing. Ground rubber is derived from two post-consumer waste streams: tire retread shops (buffings) and scrap dealers (whole tires). Crumb rubber is classified by mesh size. This refers to the size of the openings in the sieve that is used to separate smaller particles from larger particles, with smaller numbers corresponding to larger openings. It is primarily formed by two processes, ambient and cryogenic. In the ambient process tire scraps are ground into small pieces under ambient conditions using rotating blades and knives. In the cryogenic process tires are frozen in liquid nitrogen and shattered into small pieces with hammers. The resulting particles are smooth and more regular in shape with a lower surface area. Both processes contain additional steps designed to remove most of the steel and textile fibers from the tires, though the cryogenic method results in particles that may contain less fiber and steel content than particles formed in the ambient method. The data in the sources researched generally combined analyses of samples derived from both methods. Consequently, this CP is intended to cover products manufactured in either process. In addition, this CP does not cover crumb rubber that is coated with colorants, sealers, or biocides, which could all add additional chemical hazards to the product. 

Crumb rubber can be used in a number of different flooring products, playground and athletic surfaces, and in rubberized asphalt and other pavement. The advantage of incorporating crumb rubber into these products is that it has the potential to divert billions of pounds of tires from the waste stream into recycled products each year. This Common Product (CP) focuses on crumb rubber used as infill in athletic surfaces, with sizes generally ranging from 4 to 30 mesh. The use of crumb rubber in athletic surfaces is controversial as it contains chemicals known to be harmful to human health. Numerous risk assessment studies have concluded that athletes are not exposed to chemicals at levels that are harmful to human health for this applicaion, however, a study of tire-derived products conducted by the State of California did identify some chemicals emitted above the threshold of concern from new flooring products that contained crumb rubber. This report also emphasized that some chemicals that were identified in the products do not have established health thresholds. It is important to note that most chemicals do not have established health thresholds because they remain unassessed. In addition, testing only captures the chemicals that are being tested for and other hazardous volatile or non-volatile substances may be present that pose health concerns. Some substances found in crumb rubber, like lead, are known to have no safe threshold for exposure. In addition, exposures to many hazardous chemials from multiple sources do occur and are not well understood. Tire formulations are complex and residual concentrations of other chemicals are likely to be present.

Because recycled content can vary, this CP displays ranges for all chemicals identified in numerous academic studies. These ranges summarize testing data from samples tested prior to being used as infill in athletic turf, while field samples taken from athletic turf are excluded. Per the Common Product research methodology, chemicals present at less than 100 ppm in a product or material are included in the CP if they have an associated PBT, cancer, or respiratory hazard. Chemicals that were identified as present below 100 ppm that did not have one of these associated hazards at the time of the research, were excluded from the CP. Chemicals that were identified as present but not quantified, such as VOCs, can be found in the All Contents tab. 

Name % Wt Whole Function GS Score Sources
Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Benzene, ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene)
9003-55-8
<100.00% Polymer Subscribe to view
Natural rubber
9006-04-6
<40.00% Polymer Subscribe to view
Carbon black
1333-86-4
<40.00% Filler, Extender, Reinforcement Aid Subscribe to view
DISTILLATE AROMATIC EXTRACT
64742-04-7
<22.00% Process Oil Subscribe to view
Zinc oxide
1314-13-2
<6.00% Vulcanizing Agent Subscribe to view
Talc
14807-96-6
<5.00% Filler, Extender, Reinforcement Aid Subscribe to view
Zinc, elemental
7440-66-6
<2.50% Metal Subscribe to view
Sulfur, precipitated
7704-34-9
<1.00% Vulcanizing Agent Subscribe to view
Silicon, elemental
7440-21-3
<0.97% Metal Subscribe to view
Iron, elemental
7439-89-6
<0.73% Metal Subscribe to view
1,4-Benzenediamine, N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl- (6PPD)
793-24-8
<0.29% Antiozonant, Antioxidant Subscribe to view
Aluminum
7429-90-5
<0.15% Metal Subscribe to view
Xylenes
1330-20-7
<0.10% VOC Subscribe to view
Toluene
108-88-3
<0.05% VOC Subscribe to view
Potassium
7440-09-7
<0.05% Metal Subscribe to view
Cobalt
7440-48-4
<0.04% Metal Subscribe to view
Magnesium
7439-95-4
<0.04% Metal Subscribe to view
Pyrene
129-00-0
<0.03% PAH Subscribe to view
Sodium
7440-23-5
<0.03% Metal Subscribe to view
Nylon-66
32131-17-2
<0.01% Fiber Subscribe to view
Benzothiazole
95-16-9
<0.01% Accelerator Subscribe to view
Lead
7439-92-1
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Copper
7440-50-8
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
BENZO[G,H,I]PERYLENE
191-24-2
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
FLUORANTHENE
206-44-0
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE (DEHP) (primary CASRN)
117-81-7
<0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
DIISOBUTYL PHTHALATE (DIBP)
84-69-5
<0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl)phenol
140-66-9
<0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
Manganese
7439-96-5
<0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
MERCURY
7439-97-6
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Nickel
7440-02-0
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
TIN
7440-31-5
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Arsenic
7440-38-2
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
BARIUM
7440-39-3
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Boron
7440-42-8
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
CADMIUM
7440-43-9
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Chromium
7440-47-3
<0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
ANTHRACENE
120-12-7
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO(E)PYRENE
192-97-2
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
193-39-5
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[J]FLUORANTHENE
205-82-3
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[B]FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE
207-08-9
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
ACENAPHTHENE
83-32-9
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Chrysene
218-01-9
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Benzo(a)pyrene
50-32-8
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE
53-70-3
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
PHENANTHRENE
85-01-8
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Fluorene
86-73-7
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
1-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
90-12-0
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
91-57-6
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Naphthalene
91-20-3
<0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP)
84-74-2
<0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP)
85-68-7
<0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
Butylated hydroxytoluene
128-37-0
<0.01% Antioxidant Subscribe to view
Aniline
62-53-3
<0.01% Anti-aging agent, antidegredant Subscribe to view
Mercaptobenzothiazole
149-30-4
<0.01% Accelerator Subscribe to view
FURFURAL
98-01-1
<0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
Bisphenol A
80-05-7
<0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)
<0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
isononylphenol
11066-49-2
<0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
p-tert-Butylphenol
98-54-4
<0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
DIISODECYL PHTHALATE (DIDP) (alternate CASRN is 68515-49-1)
26761-40-0
<0.01% Plasticizer Subscribe to view
Name % Wt Part % Wt Whole Function GS Score Sources
Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Benzene, ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene)
9003-55-8
<100.00% <100.00% Polymer Subscribe to view
Natural rubber
9006-04-6
<40.00% <40.00% Polymer Subscribe to view
Carbon black
1333-86-4
<40.00% <40.00% Filler, Extender, Reinforcement Aid Subscribe to view
DISTILLATE AROMATIC EXTRACT
64742-04-7
<22.00% <22.00% Process Oil Subscribe to view
Zinc oxide
1314-13-2
<6.00% <6.00% Vulcanizing Agent Subscribe to view
Talc
14807-96-6
<5.00% <5.00% Filler, Extender, Reinforcement Aid Subscribe to view
Zinc, elemental
7440-66-6
<2.50% <2.50% Metal Subscribe to view
Sulfur, precipitated
7704-34-9
<1.00% <1.00% Vulcanizing Agent Subscribe to view
Silicon, elemental
7440-21-3
<0.97% <0.97% Metal Subscribe to view
Iron, elemental
7439-89-6
<0.73% <0.73% Metal Subscribe to view
1,4-Benzenediamine, N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl- (6PPD)
793-24-8
<0.29% <0.29% Antiozonant, Antioxidant Subscribe to view
Aluminum
7429-90-5
<0.15% <0.15% Metal Subscribe to view
Xylenes
1330-20-7
<0.10% <0.10% VOC Subscribe to view
Toluene
108-88-3
<0.05% <0.05% VOC Subscribe to view
Potassium
7440-09-7
<0.05% <0.05% Metal Subscribe to view
Cobalt
7440-48-4
<0.04% <0.04% Metal Subscribe to view
Magnesium
7439-95-4
<0.04% <0.04% Metal Subscribe to view
Pyrene
129-00-0
<0.03% <0.03% PAH Subscribe to view
Sodium
7440-23-5
<0.03% <0.03% Metal Subscribe to view
Nylon-66
32131-17-2
<0.01% <0.01% Fiber Subscribe to view
Benzothiazole
95-16-9
<0.01% <0.01% Accelerator Subscribe to view
Lead
7439-92-1
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Copper
7440-50-8
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
BENZO[G,H,I]PERYLENE
191-24-2
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
FLUORANTHENE
206-44-0
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE (DEHP) (primary CASRN)
117-81-7
<0.01% <0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
DIISOBUTYL PHTHALATE (DIBP)
84-69-5
<0.01% <0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl)phenol
140-66-9
<0.01% <0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
Manganese
7439-96-5
<0.01% <0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
MERCURY
7439-97-6
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Nickel
7440-02-0
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
TIN
7440-31-5
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Arsenic
7440-38-2
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
BARIUM
7440-39-3
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Boron
7440-42-8
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
CADMIUM
7440-43-9
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
Chromium
7440-47-3
<0.01% <0.01% Metal Subscribe to view
ANTHRACENE
120-12-7
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO(E)PYRENE
192-97-2
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
193-39-5
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[J]FLUORANTHENE
205-82-3
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[B]FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE
207-08-9
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
ACENAPHTHENE
83-32-9
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Chrysene
218-01-9
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Benzo(a)pyrene
50-32-8
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE
53-70-3
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
PHENANTHRENE
85-01-8
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Fluorene
86-73-7
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
1-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
90-12-0
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
91-57-6
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
Naphthalene
91-20-3
<0.01% <0.01% PAH Subscribe to view
DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP)
84-74-2
<0.01% <0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP)
85-68-7
<0.01% <0.01% Phthalate Subscribe to view
Butylated hydroxytoluene
128-37-0
<0.01% <0.01% Antioxidant Subscribe to view
Aniline
62-53-3
<0.01% <0.01% Anti-aging agent, antidegredant Subscribe to view
Mercaptobenzothiazole
149-30-4
<0.01% <0.01% Accelerator Subscribe to view
FURFURAL
98-01-1
<0.01% <0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
Bisphenol A
80-05-7
<0.01% <0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)
<0.01% <0.01% Residual Subscribe to view
isononylphenol
11066-49-2
<0.01% <0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
p-tert-Butylphenol
98-54-4
<0.01% <0.01% Alkylphenol Subscribe to view
DIISODECYL PHTHALATE (DIDP) (alternate CASRN is 68515-49-1)
26761-40-0
<0.01% <0.01% Plasticizer Subscribe to view

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Known or Potential Residuals
Known or Potential Residuals for Chemical
CASRN NAME GS SCORE TYPE FREQUENCY % WT CHEM % WT PRODUCT SOURCE
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Other Process Chemicals
CASRN NAME GS Score TYPE FREQUENCY % WT CHEM % WT PRODUCT SOURCES
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HBN Resources (3)
HBN Resources for Product
TYPE TITLE
Report Resilient Flooring & Chemical Hazards: A Comparative Analysis of Vinyl and Other Alternatives for Health Care
Report Avoiding Contaminants in Tire-Derived Flooring
Tool Turf Hazard Spectrum
Sources
Sources for Common Product Data
Source Uploaded Document Linked Document
BAS SDS
CalRecycle 2014
CRM Crumb Rubber
CRM SDS
Crumb Rubber
Depaolini 2017
Di-Corp Crumb Rubber
Di-Corp SDS
DRRR-2011-002
ECHA 64742-04-7
ECHA ETRMA Analysis
ECHA Rubber Granules
Entech SDS 2009
Entech SDS 2018
EPA-600R-19-051
ERASSTRI
ERASSTRI Supplement
FRAP Protocol 2016
Global Tire Recycling Market Report 2020
Global Tire Recycling SDS
Gomes 2010
Landi 2018
Liberty Tire Recycling SDS
Mattina 2007
MDH Crumb Rubber
NBI O-10820
NTP-RR-11
OEHHA DRRR-2010-009
Plastics Technology Handbook
Plaxolene 50
Polyplast SDS
Presti 2013
Pronk 2018
reRubber Brochure
reRubber SDS
Rubber Compounding
STC Crumb Rubber
STC synthetic turf stufy list
Tarkett Crumb vs Cryogenic
Tire News 8-10-2010
Total Plasticizers
Total Rubber Process Oils
TURI Infill PAHs
TURI Report 2018-002
Tyrec SDS
U.S. EPA CompTox List - Tire Crumb Rubber
USTMA Tire Composition